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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 133-141

Risk factors for new-onset heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction in patients with ischemic heart disease: A cohort study

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Senbeta Guteta Abdissa
P. O. Box 28287/1000, Addis Ababa
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcls.jcls_79_19

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Background: Risk factors for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in Ethiopian and Sub-Saharan African patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) is not well-known. Methods: This is a cohort study where 228 patients with IHD were recruited and followed retrospectively over 24 months period. Exclusion criteria were known HF at baseline and absence of echocardiography data. From baseline clinical and echocardiographic patient characteristics, risk factors for incident HFpEF and incident HFrEF were analyzed. Results: New-onset HF was diagnosed in 67.1% (153/228) of the patients. Median time to HF diagnosis was 12.02 (3.42–13.31) months in HFrEF and 12.06 (2.66–15.28) months in HFpEF. There was no significant difference between HFrEF and HFpEF in time to incident HF. On univariate regression analysis risk factors for incident total HF were age, diabetes, and left atrium (LA) size. Diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, LA and diastolic left ventricular dimension (LVD) had significant association with HFrEF. Age, sex, hypertension, SBP, and diastolic LVD were significantly associated with HFpEF. On cox regression analysis diabetes and LA dimension were associated with total HF while diastolic LVD was associated with incident HFpEF and HFrEF. Age, diabetes, and dimension of LA were also associated with HFrEF. Conclusion: These data suggest a major role for age, sex, diabetes, bigger LA size, and diastolic LVD as predictors of HFrEF and HFpEF in patients with IHD. Strategies directed to prevention and treatment of diabetes, dilatation of left ventricle and LA may prevent a considerable proportion of HFrEF or HFpEF.

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