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2022| April-June | Volume 19 | Issue 2
June 13, 2022
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH REPORTS
Pus cell as an indicator for
diagnostic yield by GeneXpert MTB/RIF in South-South Nigeria: A prospective study
Ekom Ndifreke Edem, Anthony Nathaniel Umo, Olajide Joseph Akinjogunla, Unwana Ezekiel Akereuke
April-June 2022, 19(2):62-66
The common problem in tuberculosis (TB) management is mis-diagnosis or under diagnosis of cases leading to high morbidity and mortality. In order to reverse this, new diagnostic tools for detection of
(MTB) have been developed. However, in the evaluation process of these tools many studies have not considered attributes of sputum quality in their testing algorithm. The performance of laboratory tests to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is dependent on the quality of the sputum sample tested and quality is measured by the number of pus and epithelial cells present in sputum. Aims and Objectives: this study aimed at investigating the association between pus cell and MTB positivity.
Sputum samples from 140 suspected TB participants were screened for sputum quality and MTB using macroscopy, Ziehl-Neelson staining and GeneXpert techniques.
Of the 140 sputum samples subjected to AFB microscopy and GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, GeneXpert assay had 32 (22.9%) MTB positives while AFB smear had 27 (19.3%) MTB positives and there was no significant relationship between sputum type and MTB yield by AFB compared to Xpert that showed significant relationship between sputum type and MTB yield with
<0.005. Out of the 37 sputum samples with pus cells ≥25, 29 (90.6%) were MTB positive by Xpert and 25 (92.6%) were MTB positive by AFB smear.
In conclusion, our study shows a high significant association between pus cells presence and the methods and therefore suggests that presence of pus cells in sputum is predictive for possible positivity to MTB by Xpert MTB/RIF.
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Screening for postpartum depression by health-care workers in Kaduna, North-Western Nigeria: A cross sectional study
Amina Mohammed-Durosinlorun, Nafisatu Mamoon, Bashir A Yakasai
April-June 2022, 19(2):49-56
Postpartum depression (PPD) can be associated with adverse maternal/neonatal outcomes and screening leads to increased recognition and earlier initiation of management before more complications set in.
The objective of the study was to determine practices and attitudes towards screening for PPD among health care workers in Kaduna.
The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Participants were health-care workers providing care for pregnant women. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Information collected included biodemographic data, professional and hospital characteristics, knowledge, views, and practices related to PPD screening. Data were summarized using cross table and frequency tables. Chi-square or Likelihood Ratio test was used as appropriate. A
< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
There were 202 respondents. The mean age of participants was 34.49 ± 9.95 years. Majority of the participants had experience of 1–5 years (53, 26.2%), worked in secondary (80, 39.6%), and public (168, 83.2%) facilities. Most participants “Sometimes” or “Never” screened women for PPD (184, 91.1%), while 18 participants (8.9%) “Always” or “Often” screened for PPD. Facility level and cadre were significantly associated with routine screening for PPD (
< 0.05). Only about 10% were aware of the use of validated questionnaires as screening tools. Overall, one hundred and seventy-six participants (87.1%) had a good attitude toward screening for PPD. Religion and ethnic group were significantly associated with attitudes toward PPD screening.
Most respondents do not routinely screen women for PPD and are not very familiar with screening tools but had good attitudes toward PPD screening.
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Ten years experience in surgical management of congenital lung malformations: A prospective, cross sectional study
Ezekiel Ogunleye, Olugbenga Olusoji, Ireti Fajolu, Peter Iwuchukwu
April-June 2022, 19(2):57-61
Congenital lung malformations are very rare lung lesions caused by abnormal lung development occurring at different stages of intrauterine life. They are a spectrum of congenital malformations involving the trachea-bronchial tree, pulmonary parenchyma, and the blood vessels. They are a family of pulmonary lesions that include congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM), bronchopulmonary sequestrations, bronchogenic cysts (BC), and congenital lobar emphysema (CLE). The aim of the study is to determine the pattern of congenital malformation of the lungs and the outcomes of treatment in Lagos.
This is a prospective study of all patients with congenital lung malformations referred to our center in the period between January 2011 and December 2020. All pediatric cases were diagnosed by the pediatricians in our center and confirmed with chest computed tomography (CT) scan. The adult cases were equally confirmed with a chest CT scan. The lesions encountered in this study include BC, CPAM, bronchopulmonary sequestrations, lung hypoplasia (LH), CLE, and pulmonary arterio-venous malformations. Data collected include biodata, type of malformation, mode of management (surgery), and postoperative outcome and were analyzed as percentages and mean.
A total of 18 patients who were diagnosed with congenital lung malformations were recruited into this study. The congenital malformations included CLE, CPAM, BC, lung sequestration, LH, and arterio-venous malformation of the lung. Children accounted for 78% (13) of the population, while the adult population was 28%.(5) The neonates constituted 22% (4) with a mean age of 7.5 ± 5.1, whilst the older children made up 50%, with a mean age of 18.8 ± 10.7 months. The mean age of the adult population was 39 ± 15 years. Seventeen (94.41) had surgery, whilst one opted for continued medical surveillance. Two patients died from postoperative respiratory failure.
Congenital lung malformations, though rare, are a heterogeneous group of diseases with presentation, ranging from neonatal respiratory distress to asymptomatic presentation in the adult. The mainstay of management remains surgery with a reasonably good outcome.
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Pituitary adenoma with gangliocytoma: A rare mixed tumor in the sellar region
Archana Buch, Neha Agarwal, Tushar Kambale, Charusheela Gore
April-June 2022, 19(2):67-70
Sellar gangliocytomas are exceedingly rare, well-differentiated, low-grade neoplasms that frequently occur in the presence of a pituitary adenoma (PA). We report a case of a sellar gangliocytoma coexisting with growth hormone (GH) secreting PA. A 43-year-old man was brought to our hospital with right-eye visual disturbances for 2 months, along with headaches, acromegaly, temporal hemianopia in the right eye, and recent onset of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrinological studies found elevated serum level of GH. A computed tomographic scan showed a mass in the sellar region with suprasellar extension and thus a diagnosis of an expanding pituitary macroadenoma was established. It was removed by transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. On histopathological examination of the resected specimen, diagnosis of mixed gangliocytoma-PA was confirmed as it showed two distinct morphological components of the tumor comprising neoplastic ganglionic cells and adenomatous cells.
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Online since 6 Dec, 2013